Heat Flux

Optimizing heat flux in your industrial oven will enable you to produce the same product on two different lines and assist you with enhancing the quality (color, texture, flavor)of your baked goods. Reading Thermal offers a state-of-the-art solution.

Reading Thermal, a Reading Bakery Systems brand, manufactures and supports the SCORPION® 2 Data Logger, which monitors actual in-process conditions and gets the critical information you need to correct problems and maintain optimum process control.

What is Oven Heat Flux?

Oven heat flux refers to the amount of energy transferred per unit area per unit time from or to a surface. It is the best non-intrusive indicator of the performance of ovens during baking in terms of the product.

Heat transfer follows three different modes of heat transfer during baking – radiation, convection and conduction – and heat flux involves all three components. Every product will have its own unique mix of these components and its own heat flux profile. There is no single optimal heat flux profile for all products.

Some product characteristics are defined by the amount and type of heat applied during the baking process. The differences explain why one oven bakes differently than another. And analyzing and controlling these differences is critical to understanding how the finished product characteristics will be affected.

The SCORPION® 2 Heat Flux Sensor measures radiant and heat fluxes at product level and displays the results in Btu/hr·ft2 or convective W/m2. Convective and radiant heat is absorbed by the band, which serves as the conduction mechanism to the product.

While traveling through the oven with the product (in a fully loaded oven), the sensor produces a precise profile of heat flux components the product experienced. From above the conveyor, the Heat Flux Sensor measures the flow of energy experienced by the product and identifies which modes of heat transfer are predominant.

Other Smart Sensors and Sensor Arrays


Bakeries worldwide rely on the  SCORPION® 2 Digital Humidity Sensor, which measures the moisture content of the thermal environment in both heating and cooling processes. It is appropriate for proofers, ovens, dryers, and cooling tunnels.


Insufficient or excessive temperatures while baking can lead to undesirable changes in taste and texture. The Scorpion® 2 Temperature Sensor Array measures temperature at product level, in fixed positions across the conveyor, and delivers a precise picture of temperatures from side-to-side and end-to-end.

Air Velocity

Oven air flow influences the coloration, texture, firmness, and baking time of your final product, which makes measuring air velocity with the SCORPION® 2 Air Velocity Sensor important. The profiles will help you spot airflow differences between baking zones and unwanted air currents at the entrance or exit of the oven that results in inconsistent baking.

Contact Reading Thermal to learn more about the SCORPION® 2 Heat Flux Sensor and our other innovative oven profiling products. Contact us online, or call our headquarters in Sinking Spring, Pennsylvania at (610) 678-5890 Ext. 2.